Reformed Libertarianism: An Alternative to Guillaume Bignon

A few months ago, my friend Tim Stratton at FreeThinking Ministries asked me to write a piece responding to Guillaume Bignon’s form of exhaustive deterministic Calvinism. Bignon is a compatibilist; that is, he is someone who believes that the propositions “God determines all things” and “human beings are free in the morally relevant sense” are … Continue reading Reformed Libertarianism: An Alternative to Guillaume Bignon

Does God Have Middle Knowledge of His Own Actions?

One distinctive feature of Molinism is the idea of Middle Knowledge, whereby God knows what any possible creature would freely do under any possible set of circumstances. Hence, the content of this knowledge is said to include all true Counterfactuals of Creaturely Freedom (CCF). An interesting question arises when we ask ourselves “Does God also … Continue reading Does God Have Middle Knowledge of His Own Actions?

Are Your Belief-Forming Faculties Reliable?

In Plato’s Meno, Socrates and Meno discuss the nature of knowledge. Meno asks the master of dialectic about the difference between knowledge and true belief. Meno wonders if there is a real difference, and assuming there is, why knowledge is better. Socrates responds by comparing true belief to one of Daedalus’ statues.[i] The statues are beautiful, … Continue reading Are Your Belief-Forming Faculties Reliable?

An Exercise on the Problem of Evil

Are you under a stay-at-home order? Consider thinking about the problem of evil (PoE). Here is a brief exercise. Suppose someone says the following to you: “God would never permit COVID-19. So, since there is COVID-19, there is no God.” How would you respond? Notice that this is an example of the PoE. But there … Continue reading An Exercise on the Problem of Evil

The Moral Argument: A Short Dialectic

The Argument There are several versions of the moral argument for theism.[i] One goes like this: If God does not exist, then objective morality does not exist. Objective morality exists. Therefore, God exists. (This argument is deductively valid by modus tollens.) The Dialectic Suppose a friend asks you why he should believe in God. You … Continue reading The Moral Argument: A Short Dialectic

The Existentialist Argument

“What sacred games shall we have to invent?” (Nietzsche, The Parable of the Madman, The Joyful Wisdom) “Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the duty of all mankind.” (Ecclesiastes 12:13)   Introduction In this article, I provide an argument from … Continue reading The Existentialist Argument

The Probabilistic Argument from Gratuitous Evil and the Bracketing of Evidence

Introduction In this article, I argue that when considering the existence of God, it is unreasonable to bracket background evidence in the manner described below. First, this move is methodologically insufficient. Second, it is conceptually questionable. The Argument from Gratuitous Evil and the Bracketing Method The argument from gratuitous evil is usually articulated as a … Continue reading The Probabilistic Argument from Gratuitous Evil and the Bracketing of Evidence

Are the Doors of Hell Locked from the Inside?

Introduction C. S. Lewis claimed that the doors of hell are locked from the inside.[i] In this article, I provide an argument to support Lewis’ claim. I also discuss the apologetic significance of his assertion. Assumptions I assume that free will exists and that human beings have libertarian freedom. I also assume the moral principle … Continue reading Are the Doors of Hell Locked from the Inside?

Socratic Dialogue on Postmodernism

Preface As Nicholas Rescher notes in Chapter 3 of Metaphilosophy: Philosophy in Philosophical Perspective, philosophy can be articulated in several ways, including the essay, the medieval scholastic treatise, and the dialogue format. In what follows, I provide a philosophical evaluation of postmodernism using the dialogue format. In honor of the first masters of dialogue – … Continue reading Socratic Dialogue on Postmodernism

Logical Moments & the Structure of God’s Knowledge

Recently Tim Stratton wrote a response to the following question: “On the framework of Molinism, if there are multiple “logical moments” (not to be confused with chronological moments) prior to God’s creative decree, then would this not imply that God knows and does not know a truth simultaneously? If so, is this not a contradiction … Continue reading Logical Moments & the Structure of God’s Knowledge