The Moral Argument: A Short Dialectic

The Argument There are several versions of the moral argument for theism.[i] One goes like this: If God does not exist, then objective morality does not exist. Objective morality exists. Therefore, God exists. (This argument is deductively valid by modus tollens.) The Dialectic Suppose a friend asks you why he should believe in God. You … Continue reading The Moral Argument: A Short Dialectic

The Existentialist Argument

“What sacred games shall we have to invent?” (Nietzsche, The Parable of the Madman, The Joyful Wisdom) “Now all has been heard; here is the conclusion of the matter: Fear God and keep his commandments, for this is the duty of all mankind.” (Ecclesiastes 12:13)   Introduction In this article, I provide an argument from … Continue reading The Existentialist Argument

The Probabilistic Argument from Gratuitous Evil and the Bracketing of Evidence

Introduction In this article, I argue that when considering the existence of God, it is unreasonable to bracket background evidence in the manner described below. First, this move is methodologically insufficient. Second, it is conceptually questionable. The Argument from Gratuitous Evil and the Bracketing Method The argument from gratuitous evil is usually articulated as a … Continue reading The Probabilistic Argument from Gratuitous Evil and the Bracketing of Evidence

Are the Doors of Hell Locked from the Inside?

Introduction C. S. Lewis claimed that the doors of hell are locked from the inside.[i] In this article, I provide an argument to support Lewis’ claim. I also discuss the apologetic significance of his assertion. Assumptions I assume that free will exists and that human beings have libertarian freedom. I also assume the moral principle … Continue reading Are the Doors of Hell Locked from the Inside?

Socratic Dialogue on Postmodernism

Preface As Nicholas Rescher notes in Chapter 3 of Metaphilosophy: Philosophy in Philosophical Perspective, philosophy can be articulated in several ways, including the essay, the medieval scholastic treatise, and the dialogue format. In what follows, I provide a philosophical evaluation of postmodernism using the dialogue format. In honor of the first masters of dialogue – … Continue reading Socratic Dialogue on Postmodernism

Logical Moments & the Structure of God’s Knowledge

Recently Tim Stratton wrote a response to the following question: “On the framework of Molinism, if there are multiple “logical moments” (not to be confused with chronological moments) prior to God’s creative decree, then would this not imply that God knows and does not know a truth simultaneously? If so, is this not a contradiction … Continue reading Logical Moments & the Structure of God’s Knowledge

Why Anselm’s Argument in Chapter 2 of Proslogium has Modal Significance

It is commonly held that Anselm’s argument in Chapter 2 of Proslogium is not a modally-significant argument, but that his argument in Chapter 3 possesses such significance. For example, in the first paragraph of Anselm’s Neglected Argument, Brian Leftow refers to the argument in Chapter 2 as “non-modal” and to the argument in Chapter 3 … Continue reading Why Anselm’s Argument in Chapter 2 of Proslogium has Modal Significance

The Kalam Cosmological Argument, Part One

Introduction The kalam cosmological argument is both historically and currently significant. William Lane Craig, the leading contemporary advocate of the argument, has dubbed it the kalam argument in recognition of its origin in the work of Medieval Muslim philosophers such as al-Ghazali.[1] The argument continues to interest philosophers and theologians. Its structure is simple: Whatever … Continue reading The Kalam Cosmological Argument, Part One

Philosophical Notes on the Underground: Two

I closed Note One by calling Underground Man “grouchy.”[1] That is an understatement. The man admits to being spiteful. He hates his neighbors, practices cruelty, and delights in the misfortune of others. He even claims to take pleasure in his own pain and bitterness, some of which is self-induced. For example: “I reached a point … Continue reading Philosophical Notes on the Underground: Two

Philosophical Notes on the Underground: One

“Meaningless! Meaningless!” says the Teacher. “Utterly meaningless! Everything is meaningless.” (Ecclesiastes 1:2)   In Part 1 of Notes from Underground, Dostoyevsky’s Underground Man claims that consciousness is a disease.[1] In a loose sense, given certain assumptions, Underground Man makes a significant point. In a strict sense, however, he is wrong. Let me explain. First, we … Continue reading Philosophical Notes on the Underground: One