Are the Doors of Hell Locked from the Inside?

Introduction C. S. Lewis claimed that the doors of hell are locked from the inside.[i] In this article, I provide an argument to support Lewis’ claim. I also discuss the apologetic significance of his assertion. Assumptions I assume that free will exists and that human beings have libertarian freedom. I also assume the moral principle … Continue reading Are the Doors of Hell Locked from the Inside?

Socratic Dialogue on Postmodernism

Preface As Nicholas Rescher notes in Chapter 3 of Metaphilosophy: Philosophy in Philosophical Perspective, philosophy can be articulated in several ways, including the essay, the medieval scholastic treatise, and the dialogue format. In what follows, I provide a philosophical evaluation of postmodernism using the dialogue format. In honor of the first masters of dialogue – … Continue reading Socratic Dialogue on Postmodernism

Logical Moments & the Structure of God’s Knowledge

Recently Tim Stratton wrote a response to the following question: “On the framework of Molinism, if there are multiple “logical moments” (not to be confused with chronological moments) prior to God’s creative decree, then would this not imply that God knows and does not know a truth simultaneously? If so, is this not a contradiction … Continue reading Logical Moments & the Structure of God’s Knowledge

Why Anselm’s Argument in Chapter 2 of Proslogium has Modal Significance

It is commonly held that Anselm’s argument in Chapter 2 of Proslogium is not a modally-significant argument, but that his argument in Chapter 3 possesses such significance. For example, in the first paragraph of Anselm’s Neglected Argument, Brian Leftow refers to the argument in Chapter 2 as “non-modal” and to the argument in Chapter 3 … Continue reading Why Anselm’s Argument in Chapter 2 of Proslogium has Modal Significance

The Kalam Cosmological Argument, Part One

Introduction The kalam cosmological argument is both historically and currently significant. William Lane Craig, the leading contemporary advocate of the argument, has dubbed it the kalam argument in recognition of its origin in the work of Medieval Muslim philosophers such as al-Ghazali.[1] The argument continues to interest philosophers and theologians. Its structure is simple: Whatever … Continue reading The Kalam Cosmological Argument, Part One

Philosophical Notes on the Underground: Two

I closed Note One by calling Underground Man “grouchy.”[1] That is an understatement. The man admits to being spiteful. He hates his neighbors, practices cruelty, and delights in the misfortune of others. He even claims to take pleasure in his own pain and bitterness, some of which is self-induced. For example: “I reached a point … Continue reading Philosophical Notes on the Underground: Two

Philosophical Notes on the Underground: One

“Meaningless! Meaningless!” says the Teacher. “Utterly meaningless! Everything is meaningless.” (Ecclesiastes 1:2)   In Part 1 of Notes from Underground, Dostoyevsky’s Underground Man claims that consciousness is a disease.[1] In a loose sense, given certain assumptions, Underground Man makes a significant point. In a strict sense, however, he is wrong. Let me explain. First, we … Continue reading Philosophical Notes on the Underground: One

Does God Know & Not Know Simultaneously?

Question: Dear Tim, On the framework of Molinism God possesses knowledge in different “logical moments” (natural, middle, and free knowledge) prior to creation. These logical moments are not to me confused with chronological moments. However,  if there are multiple “logical moments” of God’s knowledge, then would this not imply that God knows and does not … Continue reading Does God Know & Not Know Simultaneously?

A Debate with Andy Regarding the “Ring of Truth”

Regarding my Ring of Truth blog: Andy said, //You’ve not shown that Christianity being true would make [murdering homosexuals] objectively wrong, bad or evil.// I did write the following (you must have missed it): “Is atheism any better? Not really. According to logically consistent atheism, since God does not exist, then humanity was not created … Continue reading A Debate with Andy Regarding the “Ring of Truth”

The Apologetic Significance of Molinism (ETS Edit)

Presented at ETS in New Orleans (March 8, 2019) Abstract: Mere Molinism (the view that God possesses middle knowledge and humans occasionally possess libertarian freedom) bears wide-reaching benefits to many arguments in the apologist’s repertoire. Soteriological Molinism (applying Mere Molinism to issues pertaining to salvation) offers even more. This essay surveys several key features of multiple apologetics-based … Continue reading The Apologetic Significance of Molinism (ETS Edit)