Question: Dear Tim, On the framework of Molinism God possesses knowledge in different “logical moments” (natural, middle, and free knowledge) prior to creation. These logical moments are not to me confused with chronological moments. However, if there are multiple “logical moments” of God’s knowledge, then would this not imply that God knows and does not … Continue reading Does God Know & Not Know Simultaneously?
C. Michael Patton, in a recent blog, claimed to do some “math” and concluded that there are five great mysteries in Christian theology. While I am fine with an occasional appeal to mystery regarding a few topics, Christians often punt to mystery far too quickly. If we “punt to mystery” too quickly, we can sometimes … Continue reading An Unjustified Punt to Mystery
Spoiler Alert! Spoiler Alert!! Spoiler Alert!!! Seriously, if you have not yet seen the movie Avengers: Endgame, stop reading this and go to the movie theater and buy a ticket! Then come back and read this article. Consider yourself warned! One year ago, immediately after watching Avengers: Infinity War on opening night, I came home … Continue reading Avengers: Endgame, Middle Knowledge, & the Destruction of the Problem of Evil
By Limanto, John A. and Stratton, Timothy A. Originally presented at the SW Evangelical Philosophical Society (March, 2019) Abstract: Given the works of philosophers such as Plantinga, Wierenga, Leftow, and Nagasawa, the perfect being (PBT) concept of theism has received renewed attention within the philosophical-theological literature. Despite this ambitious revival, Nagasawa admits that the argument … Continue reading A Defense of Perfect Being Theology: Middle Knowledge (Scientia Media) Approach to Natural Theology
Presented at ETS in New Orleans (March 8, 2019) Abstract: Mere Molinism (the view that God possesses middle knowledge and humans occasionally possess libertarian freedom) bears wide-reaching benefits to many arguments in the apologist’s repertoire. Soteriological Molinism (applying Mere Molinism to issues pertaining to salvation) offers even more. This essay surveys several key features of multiple apologetics-based … Continue reading The Apologetic Significance of Molinism (ETS Edit)
One of the most prominent objections against Molinism (and Divine Foreknowledge, generally) is the proposition that if God knows, and/or actualises a world, where He has decreed the path of human history, how is man truly free [in the libertarian sense]? This argument is made by theists and non-theist alike. Whilst this question, I’m sure, has … Continue reading Is Sally Free?
In a forthcoming paper entitled Does the Purpose Theory of the Meaning of Life Entail an Irrational God, I defend the Purpose Theory (PT) of the meaning of human life. PT is the position that God’s telic creation of human beings is a necessary condition for human life to be objectively meaningful. My defense of … Continue reading Practical Rationality & Middle Knowledge
Why would God allow moral evil? For example, why would God allow Hitler to torture and murder millions of Jews in the horrors of Nazi concentration camps? Why would God allow natural evil? For example, why would God allow hurricanes, tornadoes, and tsunamis that kill and cause so much suffering? Why would God allow what … Continue reading 3 Circles & ALL the Problems of Evil
Why think that Mere Molinism is true? If this view corresponds to reality, then two other propositions must also be true: (i) Logically prior to God’s decision to create the world, God knew everything that would happen in any possible scenario He could create (entails God’s middle knowledge). (ii) As beings created in God’s image, humans, like God, possess the categorical … Continue reading Maximal Greatness & Middle Knowledge
One of the primary objections raised against Molinism is based on a misunderstanding of what it entails. The typical objection is that Molinism somehow entails that God is “dependent upon” or “limited” by the libertarian freedom of man. This is simply not a view that a Molinist must affirm, and thus a bad (irrational) reason … Continue reading Human Freedom & the Self-Imposed Limits of God