Is All Reasoning Circular Reasoning?

Circular reasoning is generally understood to be fallacious. The reason for this is that circular arguments assume what they purport to prove. At least one premise in a circular argument depends upon the truth of the conclusion, making the argument lose any justifying force. For in order to accept the relevant premise, one would have … Continue reading Is All Reasoning Circular Reasoning?

Book Review: Justification Without Awareness

I recently finished Michael Bergmann’s Justification Without Awareness. It was very dense and I will certainly have to read it again since some discussions were above my current level of understanding. But I’ll offer some thoughts on the parts that I did understand. The topic is epistemic justification. The book is divided into two parts. … Continue reading Book Review: Justification Without Awareness

The Freethinking Argument VS a Presuppositional Apologist

When debating the FreeThinking Argument with naturalists (those who presuppose nature is all that exists), they often accuse me of being a “presuppositionalist” (a.k.a., “a presupper”)! This means that they incorrectly believe that I am assuming naturalism is false to conclude the supernatural exists. If this were the case, I would be committing a textbook example … Continue reading The Freethinking Argument VS a Presuppositional Apologist

Sean Carroll’s Dishonesty: The Debate of 2014

Philosophy of science is a fascinating and complex field. The job requires one to philosophize about well-established scientific observations, patterns, theorems, theories, models, laws of nature, and more. A good philosopher of science will also philosophize about the standards of science and the standards of communicating science. And a brave philosopher of science will even … Continue reading Sean Carroll’s Dishonesty: The Debate of 2014

A Response to Richard Carrier

On October 25th, 2019, Richard Carrier, published a blog titled, Mark’s Use of Paul’s Epistles.[1] Carrier’s main argument is that Mark used Paul and that Matthew and Luke used Mark.  Specifically, Mark transvalued what Paul had written into his own stories.  This is problematic for Carrier, because he believes “Paul clearly taught that all his … Continue reading A Response to Richard Carrier

Proper Function & Libertarian Freedom

After three long years of intense research and writing, I finally submitted my doctoral dissertation in hopes of getting three pesky letters to follow my last name for the rest of my life: Ph.D. (I passed)! My final submission was 350 pages long (including the bibliography). To keep it relatively “short” — and to eventually … Continue reading Proper Function & Libertarian Freedom

Does Anselm’s Ontological Argument in Proslogium Two Presuppose that Existence is a Property?

Introduction In this article, I will briefly argue for the following theses: (a) it is not clear that Anselm’s ontological argument in Chapter Two of Proslogium presupposes that existence is a property, and (b) Anselm’s argument presupposes that objectivity and subjectivity are properties. Argument It is commonly held that, in Chapter Two of Proslogium, Anselm … Continue reading Does Anselm’s Ontological Argument in Proslogium Two Presuppose that Existence is a Property?

Philosophical Notes on the Underground: Three

“More than that: you say that then science itself will teach man (though this, to my mind, is already a luxury) that he really does not possess, and never did possess, either a will or a whim of his own; that he is, in fact, no more than a kind of piano key or organ … Continue reading Philosophical Notes on the Underground: Three

A Defense of Perfect Being Theology: Middle Knowledge (Scientia Media) Approach to Natural Theology

By Limanto, John A. and Stratton, Timothy A. Originally presented at the SW Evangelical Philosophical Society (March, 2019) Abstract: Given the works of philosophers such as Plantinga,[1] Wierenga,[2] Leftow,[3] and Nagasawa,[4] the perfect being (PBT) concept of theism has received renewed attention within the philosophical-theological literature. Despite this ambitious revival, Nagasawa admits that the argument … Continue reading A Defense of Perfect Being Theology: Middle Knowledge (Scientia Media) Approach to Natural Theology

Is Sally Free?

One of the most prominent objections against Molinism (and Divine Foreknowledge, generally) is the proposition that if God knows, and/or actualises a world, where He has decreed the path of human history, how is man truly free [in the libertarian sense]? This argument is made by theists and non-theist alike. Whilst this question, I’m sure, has … Continue reading Is Sally Free?